Skiing



Skiing is the activity of gliding over snow using skis (originally wooden planks, now usually made from fiberglass or related composites), with metal edges, strapped to the feet with ski bindings. Originally used primarily for transportation, skiing evolved into a popular recreational and competitive activity during the 20th century.

Skiing probably evolved gradually from snowshoeing and originally was a practical way of getting quickly from place to place in snowy climates. Early forms of skiing resembled today's Nordic, or cross-country, style.

Sondre Norheim is often called the "father of modern skiing". In the 19th century, Sondre Norheim invented bindings that enabled the skier to do turns while skiing down hills. This form of skiing was called Slalom (sla låm, Norwegian dialect expression for a difficult track) by Norheim and his contemporaries. This form of skiing is now referred to as Telemark skiing or telemarking.

The invention of firmer bindings to anchor the skier's feet to the ski, likely by Austrian Mathias Zdarsky, enabled the skier to turn more effectively and led to the development of Alpine, or Downhill, skiing.

Shortly thereafter, in the early 20th century, Austrian Hannes Schneider pioneered the idea of rotating the body to help steer the skis. Soon this Arlberg technique, named for his home region, spread around the world and helped make skiing a popular recreational activity.

Many different types of skiing are popular, especially in colder climates, and many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Ski Federation (FIS), and other sporting organizations. Skiing is most visible to the public during the Winter Olympic Games where it is a major sport.

In skiing's traditional core regions in the snowy parts of Scandinavia, as well as in places such as Alaska, both recreational and competitive skiing is as likely to refer to the cross-country variants as to the internationally downhill variants.

For most people Worldwide, "skiing" refers to recreational cross-country skiing, whereas in North America many people think of Alpine Skiing where one visits a ski resort, purchases a lift ticket, dons cold-weather clothing, skis, ski boots and ski poles, and embarks on a chairlift, gondola lift, or other means of mechanical uphill transport. Upon reaching the summit, the skier disembarks from the ski lift and travels downhill, propelled by gravity, usually along a marked route known as a piste, 'run,' 'trail,' or 'slope'. Most ski resorts use mechanical equipment to 'groom,' or pack down and smooth, the snow surface on certain ski trails. Grooming is normally associated with trails of lesser difficulty. Off-piste skiing includes skiing in unmarked or unpatrolled areas either within the ski resort's boundaries or in the backcountry, frequently amongst trees ("glade skiing"), usually in pursuit of fresh fallen snow, known as powder.

Skiing or snowboarding outside a ski resort's boundaries, also known as out of bounds skiing, is illegal in some ski resorts, due to the danger of avalanches on the un-patrolled areas; or the cost of search-and-rescue for lost or overdue skiers. France and Canada are two of the few countries permitting this activity. However, lost or overdue backcountry travellers are usually held responsible for the cost of search-and-rescue service if uninsured. Backcountry skiers traveling in steep terrain prone to avalanches are encouraged to take avalanche training, travel with other experienced people, and carry special equipment for self-rescue. It is recommended that skiers make the local ski patrol aware of where they are going if they stray off-piste in case of avalanches or bad weather that could put skiers in danger.

Skiing techniques are difficult to master, and accordingly there are ski schools that teach everything from the basics of turning and stopping safely to more advanced carving, racing, mogul or "bump" skiing and newer freestyle techniques. The venue, speed and technical difficulty associated with the sport can lead to collisions, accidents, hypothermia and other injury or illness, occasionally including death. Regional Ski Patrol organizations, such as the National Ski Patrol in the U.S., exist as a voluntary organization to provide guidance, help, medical assistance and emergency rescue to those in need of it.

Many non-skiers wonder why skiers are willing to risk such injury. Skiers have a variety of answers to this question, but a common explanation is that skiing simply feels exhilarating, rather like flying, and that, when done carefully, poses no greater risk of injury compared to other sports. Also, since the sport is often performed in remote areas at high altitudes, the air is clean, and the views may be really beautiful. Of course, there is some aspect of danger, but facing the danger is part of the appeal for some. For beginning skiers learning under a trained instructor, skiing speeds are low, the terrain is not steep and is often well-manicured, and the risks are relatively low. For extreme skiers, testing their expert abilities against ever more challenging terrain, the risks may be much higher. Many skiers have had experiences where they have achieved a union of the mind and the body by practising this sport; where the mind trusts the body to perform in an exceptional manner and the body trusts the mind not to lead it off an un-navigable cliff. A sense of harmony and of peak experience can result in a feeling of wholeness of self.

In addition to its role in recreation and sport, skiing is also used as a means of transport by the military, and many armies train troops for ski warfare. Ski troops played a key role in retaining Finnish independence from Russia during the Winter War, and from Germany during the Lapland War, although the use of ski troops was recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century. The sport of Biathlon was developed from military skiing patrols.

Skiing was pronounced "she-ing" at the start of the 20th century, after the Norwegian pronunciation, and was usually written "ski-ing".

Downhill skiing for people with disabilities is both a recreational pastime and a competitive sport open to those with any manner of cognitive and/or physical disabilities. Adaptations include the use of outriggers, ski tip retention devices, sit-skis like monoskis and bi-skis, brightly colored guide bibs, ski guides, and inter-skier communication systems or audible clues for blind skiers. Recreational skiing programs for people with disabilities exist at mountains across the globe. In the northeastern United States, Maine Handicapped Skiing is one of the largest, operating at Sunday River ski resort. In the western part of the United States, the National Sports Center for the Disabled at Winter Park Resort near Denver, Colorado attracts both first-timers and world-class disabled athletes from Europe, Asia, and North America. Currently the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and the International Ski Federation (FIS) sanction a number of regional, national, and international disabled skiing events, most notably a World Cup circuit, a Disabled Alpine Skiing World Championships, and the Paralympic Winter Games. Skiing for people with disabilities became popular after World War II with the return of injured veterans.

In some places, particularly in the United States, skiing is often associated with wealth. Some resorts, particularly several in the American state of Colorado, are known as places where the affluent go on vacation.

The term "ski bum" has been used to classify skiers who spend the entire skiing season at the resort, engaging in their favorite sport and obtaining jobs, mainly in the local tourism industry to make a living. More commonly many different types of people engage in skiing. Some people take days off of work occasionally, go after work, after school, or on the weekends, for short trips if the ski resort is near their home. This makes up the bulk of the ski crowd.

Since the 1980s when snowboarders began to share hills with downhill skiers, a small rivalry between skiers and boarders has developed both on and off the slopes, though it has usually remained friendly and has increased the notoriety of both sports. Skiers have often called boarders human moguls as the rest state for boarders is a sitting stance with the board perpendicular to the slope. This is because it is difficult to balance on one edge of the snowboard while stationary.

In North America, a color–shape rating system is used to indicate the difficulty of trails (otherwise known as slopes or pistes).

There is no governing body that assigns difficulty ratings to ski trails. Instead, ski resorts assign ratings to their own trails, marking a given trail according to its relative difficulty when compared with other trails at that resort. As a result, identically-pitched trails at different resorts can have different ratings.

Although slope angle is the primary consideration in assigning a trail rating, other factors come into play — including trail width, normal snow conditions and whether or not the resort regularly grooms the trail.

Usually, the terrain park will carry its own trail rating, indicating the level of challenge. A terrain park with a Black Diamond or Double Black Diamond rating would contain greater and more challenging obstacles than a park with a Blue Square rating.

In Europe, pistes are classified by a similar, colour-coded system, although shapes are not used (all ratings are circles). The ratings are:

Green
Learning or 'baby' slopes. These are usually not marked trails, but tend to be large open, gently sloping areas at the base of the ski area.
Blue
An easy trail, similar to the North American Green Circle, and are almost always groomed, or on so shallow a slope as not to need it.
Red
An intermediate slope. Steeper, or narrower than a blue slope, these are usually groomed, unless the narrowness of the trail prohibits it.
Black
An expert slope. Steep, may or may not be groomed, or may be groomed for moguls. It is worth noting that 'Black' can be a very wide classification, ranging from a slope marginally more difficult than a 'Red' to very steep avalanche chutes like the infamous Couloirs of Courchevel.
Yellow
In recent years, many resorts reclassified some black slopes to yellow slopes. This signifies a skiroute, an ungroomed and unpatrolled slope which is actually off-piste skiing in a marked area. Famous examples are the Stockhorn area in Zermatt and the Tortin slopes in Verbier. In Austria, skiroutes are usually marked with orange squares instead.

Alpine slope classification in Europe is less rigidly tied to slope angle than in North America. A lower angle slope may be classified as more difficult than a steeper slope if, for instance, it is narrower and/or requires better skiing ability to carry speed through flatter sections while controlling speed through sharp hairpin turns, off-camber slope angles or exposed rock.

Japan uses a color-coded system, but shapes do not usually accompany them. Some resorts, mainly those catering to foreigners, use the North American or European color-coding system, adding to the confusion. When in doubt, check the map legend. The usual ratings are:

Green
Beginner slopes. These are usually near the base of the mountain, although some follow switchback routes down from the top.
Red
Intermediate slopes. At most ski areas in Japan, these constitute the majority of the slopes (40° to 60°, depending on how the slopes are accounted).
Black
Expert slopes. These are the steepest and most difficult slopes at the ski area. The difficulty of these compared to like-classified slopes at other ski areas is heavily dependent on the target audience.

Japan has more than 600 ski areas (108 in Nagano Prefecture alone), many of them small and family-oriented, so comparisons between slope classifications in Japan and "equivalent" slopes in Europe or North America are minimal.

Skiers and snowboarders can encounter a wide range of snow and weather conditions, in part due to the location of specific resorts and global weather patterns at the time.

Natural snow ranges in consistency from very light and fluffy to dense and heavy, depending upon atmospheric conditions as it falls. Snow is often measured by moisture content, or the amount of water in a given volume of snow. Some areas of the United States' Rocky Mountains, for example, can receive considerable amounts of snow with moisture content as low as three to five percent; in the Northeastern United States and the Alps, moisture content is more typically 15 percent or more. Snow made by mechanical snowmaking often has moisture content of 35 percent or more.

Temperatures play a critical role in snow moisture content, but other atmospheric conditions are also relevant. Air currents and other factors determine snow crystal shape; obviously, the farther apart given snow crystals are, the more air is contained in the newly settled snow, resulting in lower net moisture content in a given volume of snow. Snow produced mechanically typically has high relative moisture content and low amounts of loft because the crystal structure resembles small, dense pellets.

Even the fluffiest snow has mass, and snow typically settles under its own weight after time. This is one reason why untouched snow measuring 20 cm on the day it falls might be measured at 15 cm the day following. Snow is also subject to sublimation - a process by which water can go directly from a frozen state to a gaseous state without first melting. It is this same process that ultimately makes ice cubes shrink in a freezer.

There are other factors that impact snow beyond its moisture content and crystal shape, however. Snow is impacted by wind, sunlight, skier traffic, ambient air temperature, relative humidity and grooming equipment; all of these factors combine to change snow crystal shape and density over time.

Thus, skiers and snowboarders typically encounter a wide range of snow conditions over the course of a season. Some of the more common conditions include:

* Powder: Light, fluffy snow, found during and immediately after snowfall. Skiing and snowboarding in deep powder snow is a favorite among skilled, experienced skiers and snowboarders; sometimes known as powderhounds.

* Packed Powder: Packed Powder is powder snow that has been compressed, either by means of mechanical snow grooming apparatus or skier traffic. The term can also be used to describe snow that has been properly made with adequate control over snowmaking apparatus. This snow condition is favored by beginners and the majority of recreational skiers, in that it tends to be relatively forgiving, easy to turn upon, and requires less skill to negotiate than powder snow.

* Granular snow: Granular snow crystals are small pellets. Depending on sun and temperature conditions, it may be wet granular snow - meaning that there is a considerable amount of unfrozen water in it, or loose granular snow, which has no unfrozen water. Wet granular snow will form a snowball; loose granular snow will not. Wet granular conditions are often found in the springtime. Loose granular conditions are generally produced when wet granular snow has re-frozen and then been broken up by snowgrooming apparatus.

* Corn snow: Corn snow is the result of repeated daily thaws and nightly re-freezing of the surface. Because of the thaw-refreeze cycle, snow crystal shapes change over time, producing crystal shapes somewhat akin to wet granular, but larger. True corn snow is a delight to ski or ride.

* Ice: skiers and snowboarders typically regard any snow condition that is very hard as 'ice.' In fact, true ice conditions are comparatively rare. Much of what is perceived to be ice is actually a frozen granular condition - wet granular snow that has refrozen to form a very dense surface. Telling the difference is comparatively easy; if one can get a ski pole to stand up in it, the surface is likely to be more of a frozen granular surface than an icy one - and while it's certainly not as enjoyable as many other snow conditions, skilled skiers and snowboarders can successfully negotiate it. In fact, it's a preferred condition among racers, in that the surface tends to be quite fast and race course conditions tend to remain more consistent during the race, with fewer ruts developing on the course. Another form of icy condition can be found at higher elevation resorts in the Rocky Mountains and in Europe; direct sunlight can melt the top layers of snow crystals and subsequent freezing and produce a very shiny, slick surface.

* Crust: Crusts are extremely challenging conditions. A crust condition exists when soft snow is covered by a harder upper layer upon the surface. This crust can be created by freezing rain (precipitation formed in warmer upper levels of the atmosphere, falling into a temperature inversion at which surface temperatures are below freezing, and freezing on contact with the ground), by direct sunlight, and by wind loading which packs down the upper layers of the snowpack but leaves lower layers more or less unaffected.

* Spring Conditions: a catch-all term ski areas use to describe conditions when numerous different surface types can be found on the mountain - usually in the later part of the season, although the term is sometimes used during an extended midwinter thaw. The term also generally reflects the presence of bare spots and/or areas of thin cover. With spring conditions, the snow is usually firm in early morning (even reaching frozen granular status if left ungroomed), breaking a softer corn or wet granular surface mid-day, and is often very soft and mushy in afternoon (many skiers refer to this type of snow condition as 'mashed potatoes," due to its heaviness). In some instances when the snow is untracked, sun baked, slightly dirty, with the consistency of a snow cone, it is called 'tecate powder.' The speed with which conditions change on a given spring day is directly related to the exposure of the slope relative to the sun. East- and south-facing slopes tend to soften first; west-facing slopes generally soften by mid-day. North-facing slopes may hold on to their overnight snow conditions throughout the day.

The combination of kiteboarding technology with skiing has led to the creation of a new sport, snowkiting. Harnessing the pull of the wind with a kite, snowkiters are able to make very large jumps and travel uphill.

Skiing is one of the few words in the English language that contains two "i"s in a row.

Types of skiing

* Alpine skiing (also known as Downhill skiing)
* Backcountry skiing (also known as Off Piste skiing)
* Cross-country skiing (also known as Nordic skiing)
* Extreme skiing
* Freeskiing
* Heliskiing
* Newschool skiing
* Telemark skiing
* Speed skiing
* Ski jumping
* Ski mountaineering
* Ski touring
* Snowboarding
* Snowkiting
* Freestyle skiing
* Cat skiing is a type of snow skiing that involves the use of a snowcat to transport skiers up mountainous terrain rather than helicopters or ski lifts used at ski resorts. It is considered a form of backcountry skiing or off-piste skiing, as the hazards encountered in a backcountry mountain environment are the same and professionals often guide participants.

Turning techniques

* Stem techniques
o The Snowplough - (also known as the wedge) - see snowplough turn
o The Stem Christie
* Parallel turn
* Carve turn
* Telemark turn
* Pivot turn

Equipment

* Skis
* Ski bindings
* Ski boots
* Ski poles
* Ski wax
* Ski suit
* Ski helmet
* Ski gloves
* Sunglasses
* Specialized Alpine touring equipment

Competition events

* Arlberg-Kandahar competition
* Winter Olympic Games
* Winter Paralympic Games
* Four Hills Tournament
* Winter X-Games

Alpine events

* Alpine Skiing World Cup
* Alpine World Skiing Championships
* Freestyle
* Slalom
* Giant slalom
* Super Giant Slalom
* Downhill
* Alpine skiing combined
* Speed Skiing
* Moguls

Nordic events

* Biathlon
* Nordic combined
* Ski jumping
* Cross-country skiing

Skiing organizations

International organizations:

* International Biathlon Union (IBU)
* International Free Skiers Association (IFSA)
* International Ski Federation (FIS)
* International Ski Instructors Association (ISIA)
* International Skiing History Association (ISHA)

National organizations:

* Iran Ski Federation
* US National Ski Hall of Fame
* Professional Ski Instructors of America
* Swiss Ski Association (in French and German)
* British Association of Snowsport Instructors
* Ski Club of Great Britain
* United States Ski and Snowboard Association
* Croatian Ski Association / Hrvatski skijaški savez (HSS)
* National Ski Patrol

Ski safety

Skiing is a winter sport that everyone can enjoy, but there are a few things you should consider before hitting the slopes. Here are some valuable tips to consider before going out skiing with your friends and family.

First, you should be fit for this activity because injury may occur if you’re not fit enough. Just like other sports before you go out you should do some warm ups. This will lessen the probability that injury will occur.

Ask for assistance, if you feel you’re not good enough to hit the slopes you should consider skiing with an expert or instructors by your side. Skiing is prone to injury so it’s a must that you know your skiing fundamentals. Knowing your limitations is the first step in NOT getting injured.

Safe skiing equipment is a must. Make sure all your equipment is in good condition; especially the ski bindings make sure they are properly adjusted to suit your needs.

Here are some tips on what to bring before you go skiing.

1. Wear ski gloves or mittens which will help to keep your hands warm and protect from the cold.

2. Goggles or sunglasses to protect your eyes from harm. Because flying particles may enter your eyes tearing can occur from the cold if you’re not wearing any eye protection.

3. Fleece top or sweater; the mid-layer or insulating garment.

4. Parka, anorak, or shell; in other words, your outer layer garment.

5. Poles which are correct for your height.

6. Thermal underwear and ski socks.

7. Wear a Helmet to avoid head injuries.

8. Boots which are sized properly when worn over one pair of warm socks.

9. Water-resistant and windproof pants or salopettes.

10. Skis that are the right length for your height and ability, mounted with ski bindings properly adjusted for your height/weight and ability.Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.
Virtual Magic is a human knowledge database blog. Text Based On Information From Wikipedia, Under The GNU Free Documentation License. Copyright (c) 2007 Virtual Magic. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

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