Spaced



Spaced is a British television situation comedy written by and starring Simon Pegg and Jessica Stevenson, directed by Edgar Wright, and broadcast on Channel 4. It is notable for its rapid-fire editing and frequent dropping of pop-culture references. Two series of seven episodes were broadcast in autumn 1999 and spring 2001.

The first series was a nominee for Best TV Sitcom in the 1999 British Comedy Awards. In 2006, Spaced came 9th on Channel 4's The Ultimate Sitcom poll, as voted for by sitcom writers, performers, directors and producers, coming ahead of sitcoms such as The Office and Father Ted.

Tim Bisley (Pegg) and Daisy Steiner (Stevenson) are two London twenty-somethings who meet by chance whilst both are flat-hunting. Despite barely knowing each other, they pretend to be a young "professional" couple in order to gain a (surprisingly cheap) flat in the distinctive building at 23 Meteor Street, and impress the landlady, Marsha Klein (Julia Deakin). Also living in the building is Brian Topp (Mark Heap), an eccentric conceptual artist and frequent visitors are Tim's best friend Mike Watt (Nick Frost) and Daisy's best friend Twist Morgan (Katy Carmichael). The series largely concerns the colourful and surreal adventures of the two as they navigate through life and decide what they want to do with their lives, come to terms with affairs of the heart, and try to figure out new ways of killing time in largely unproductive ways. Tim and Daisy repeatedly stress that they aren't a couple, but despite (or because of) this, romantic tension develops between the two characters, particularly during the second series.

* Tim Bisley (Played by Simon Pegg): Tim, rarely seen without his skateboard, his Chocolate beanie or his PlayStation controller, is an aspiring comic book artist, amateur skateboarder and passionate follower of cult fiction in many forms (including video games, science fiction and especially - at least initially - the original Star Wars trilogy). He is a rather grumpy and short-tempered soul, quick to irritation at the slightest provocation, mostly because his girlfriend Sarah broke his heart and dumped him after an affair with her boss - and Tim's friend - Duane Benzie (played by Peter Serafinowicz). He's currently writing and illustrating a graphic novel about a boy who has been transformed into a giant mutant bear and the crazed 'Doktor Mandrake' trying to find him to replicate the experiment, but hasn't actually tried selling it because he's afraid people will laugh at both it and him. A traumatic incident in his childhood when attempting to cure a fear of dogs merely left him terrified of dogs, lightning and bamboo instead. He initially works at a comic book shop, the "Fantasy Bazaar" alongside the manager / owner Bilbo Bagshot (played by Bill Bailey). In the second series he landed his dream job as a graphic artist at Dark Star Comics. He demonstrates more of a work ethic than Daisy and has an adverse reaction to Twiglets, which make him violent.

* Daisy Steiner (Played by Jessica Stevenson): Daisy is an aspiring writer, although she tends to spend most of her time actively avoiding doing any writing - or any other actual work for that matter. Whereas Tim is often grouchy and sour, Daisy is sunny, enthusiastic and cheerful, and at times overwhelmingly so. She can also be a little aggressive though, as was seen when she joined an employment agency. She considers herself to be quite intellectual, even though she only graduated from university with a third class degree. She has a tendency to babble in conversation, making social interactions rather more difficult to navigate than they necessarily have to be. She also has a tendency to interfere in other people's problems or lives as a way of avoiding focusing on her work or her own problems. Daisy bestows most of her love in a shockingly high pitch upon Twist, and her dog Colin, a Miniature Schnauzer, whom she rescues from being put down. Daisy also possesses an innate knack for martial arts, although this is seldom called into use. Her greatest desire was to go to India and see the Taj Mahal, a goal which she accomplished between series one and two after having actually published some articles for a change (her trip was also aided by inheritance money from her deceased aunt).

* Marsha Klein (Played by Julia Deakin): Marsha, the permanently sozzled landlady, is never seen without a lit cigarette in one hand and a glass of red wine in the other. Once a promising young athlete, she retired from athletics after receiving a leg injury and became a groupie instead, resulting in several marriages that ended somewhat bitterly and a teenage daughter, Amber, with whom she is near-constantly arguing. She passionately lusts after Brian, an attraction which stems from a hazy, torrid incident in the past where rent negotiations became somewhat more sensual as a result of Brian's sheer poverty. She's utterly delighted to have new, young friends, which is slightly awkward as she's the only one who doesn't know that Tim and Daisy aren't actually a couple.

* Brian Topp (Played by Mark Heap): Quietly spoken and intense, Brian gives the impression of being almost psychotic and sociopathic; in fact, he's just very shy and timid. A rather bizarre and somewhat pretentious artist, he acts appropriately tormented and angst-ridden, particularly when Marsha's lusting after him. His main artistic drives are anger, pain, fear and aggression, and his art is, according to him, 'a bit more complex' than watercolours. He is in love with Twist, and embarked on a torrid relationship with her before they broke up midway through series two. Despite this, his sexuality is quite complex and frequently alluded to throughout the series, as he seems quite undecided at times. When asked if he's gay he replies that he is not, but in a manner that suggests he thinks he ought to be. At the start of the first series, he has a strong dislike of contemporary art, but by the end of the second series he overcomes this, and proudly displays his portrait of Twist in public.

* Mike Watt (Played by Nick Frost): Mike is Tim's best friend in the whole wide world. He wishes dearly that he could join the army but unfortunately, owing to a painful incident (jumping from a tree, egged on by Tim) in their past which detached his retinas, he's ineligible and must instead console himself with membership in the Territorial Army. The first series revealed that Mike had been thrown out of the TA owing to an incident involving manouevres in France, a stolen tank, EuroDisney and a rich, socially disconnected fantasy life of Mike's own creation. By the end of the first series however he was readmitted and even gained his sergeant's stripes. Mike is very protective of Tim, and subtle suggestions over the course of the series indicate that Mike may have a slight crush on him. Despite his military pretensions, Mike is a sweet and caring individual who is deeply hurt by being put aside in favour of Tim's growing relationship with Sophie in series two.

The character was based on a recurring joke character between Simon Pegg and Nick Frost (who were best friends outside of the series). When writing Spaced, Pegg included the character and persuaded Edgar Wright to cast Frost.

* Twist Morgan (Played by Katy Carmichael): Twist, Daisy's best friend, is (in the words of Tim) either 'sweet, but stupid, or an evil genius'. She 'works in fashion' (i.e. a dry cleaner) and is an atrociously superficial 'fashion fascist'. She rarely misses an opportunity to comment on (i.e. put down) Daisy's size, weight or clothing choices. It is never mentioned in the series how Daisy and Twist met, though various extras on the DVD boxset state that they met at university. Although she and Brian are social opposites with apparently incompatible fashion sense, they did have an intense love affair, mainly based on sex, which ended badly. It is alluded though that they both still love each other.

* Colin (Played by Ada the Dog): Colin is Daisy's dog, bought from a dogs' home where he was shortly due to be put down, to cheer Daisy up after she is dumped by her boyfriend Richard. He is named after the cardboard box Daisy played with as a child when she wasn't allowed a real dog. Despite his mortal fear of dogs, Tim eventually manages to bond with Colin after they rescue him from being abducted by aliens (although he is actually taken by an evil scientist for testing). In the second series, after Daisy has returned from her travels in Asia, it is clear that Colin feels rejected by her. In the final episode she discovers he has been running off for secret rendezvous with an elderly - and rather sinister - neighbour. Daisy manages to retrieve Colin but, remembering the countless times he has been neglected and the promise of widescreen TV, he runs off again. However, when the old lady suggests changing Colin's name to Lancelot he returns to Daisy to play happy families with her and Tim. He has the ability to tilt his head sideways, thus prompting anyone who sees it to sigh at his cuteness.

Colin is, in real life, a female named Ada (although this is incorrectly spelt as 'Aida' on the credits).

A comment made by Nick Frost (Mike) during filming of a scene with Ada about dogs being unable to look up is referred to in the comedy film Shaun of the Dead.

* Sarah (Played by Anna Wilson-Jones): Sarah is the ex-girlfriend that broke Tim's heart by leaving him for his friend, Duane, and kicking him out of their flat. Sarah is a rather antipathic person, feeding her own vanity with Tim's lame attempts to get her back, while, at the same time, ruthlessly ignoring him. She later wants to reconcile with Tim but he realises that he no longer feels the same about her.

* Richard (Played by James Lance): Daisy's boyfriend. Their pet names for each other are "Daisy Duke" and "Boss Hogg". They were in a long-distance relationship (he was living in Hull) but he later breaks up with her over the phone.

* Duane Benzie (Played by Peter Serafinowicz): The gravelly-voiced back stabber who stole Sarah away from Tim. He was Sarah's boss and Tim's good friend until Tim learned of their affair. In episode "Battles", Tim gets his revenge by shooting Duane in the bollocks at close range in a paintball game. In "Gone", episode 5 of season 2, he collides with the young hoodlums in his precious Mazda MX-5, and gets his arse kicked by them.

* Amber Klein (Played by Theo Park (physical), Jessica Stevenson (voice)): Marsha's bratty teenage daughter. She and her mother constantly argue and the arguments end with Amber storming out of the house. The sound of Amber leaving becomes a cue to Tim and Daisy that Marsha will come by wanting to talk. Amber's face is never seen. Marsha has called her "The Devil in an A-cup" (in the first season) and "Dutchess of the D-grade" (in the second season), among other things. In Episode 2 of Series 2, Amber finally moves out of 23 Meteor Street, mainly because of Marsha's hostile ways.

* Tyres O'Flaherty (Played by Michael Smiley): A Northern Irish bike messenger and a friend of Tim and Mike's. He is a raver and everyday noises such as a phone ringing or a car honking sound like rave music to him. His raving (and presumed accompanying drug intake) also makes him prone to mood swings. He suspects Tim and Daisy are more than just friends.

* Bilbo Bagshot (Played by Bill Bailey): Tim's boss at the comic book store. He explains to Tim the story of Gramsci, the dog that attacks the rich on Hampstead Heath. He at one point fires Tim for his inability to get over The Phantom Menace, but later begs him to return, inspired by Tim leaving a message begging him to do so on his answer-phone. He once beat up his dad for saying Hawk the Slayer was rubbish.

* Damien Knox (Played by Clive Russell): The head of Dark Star Comics, the company that Tim desires to work for. When Tim first submitted his portfolio, Damien laughed him out of the office. Since then, Tim has been haunted by visions of Damien laughing at him and is afraid of submitting a new portfolio to him.

* Sophie (Played by Lucy Akhurst): Damien's beautiful assistant who helps Tim get hired at Dark Star. They immediately begin dating and have a fun relationship, much to the jealousy of both Daisy and Mike. In the last episode, she gets a job at Marvel Comics in America, and must move away.

* Dexter and Cromwell (Played by Reece Shearsmith and Jonathan Ryland): Mike's rivals in the TA. They destroyed Mike and Tim's combat robot in an effort to take their place in Robot Wars - but eventually have to settle it at the shadowy underground community "Robot Club" (a reference to Fight Club). Later, Mike earns the rank of sergeant and becomes their superior.

1. Beginnings - Daisy and Tim meet in a small cafe and bond over their mutual search for accommodation (he's been kicked out by girlfriend Sarah, she's a squatter desperate to escape her down-and-out acquaintances), and gradually form a friendship. Just when all seems lost, they stumble upon what seems to be a perfect place - trouble is, it's listed as being for a 'professional couple' only. Thus begins a complicated plan involving faked photos and memorizing every significant (and not-so-significant) fact about each other to pass themselves off as a long term couple in order to fool Marsha, their prospective landlady. To their mutual surprise, it works.
2. Gatherings - To avoid doing any actual work, freshly unpacked Daisy plans a housewarming party - something to make their home the "new hub of north London." Unfortunately, all of Tim's friends are busy attending skateboarding meets or sci-fi conventions (except for Mike, present to provide door security), and Daisy's media contacts extend about as far as the paperboy (except for Twist, present to provide fashion commentary), so there's hardly any guests (except for Marsha, present to consume alcohol, and Brian, present to provide artistic critiquing of Daisy's baco-foil decorations). Meanwhile, Marsha's daughter Amber is throwing her own party in conflict to the housewarming party (such that it is one). The episode ends with an homage to Close Encounters of the Third Kind as Tim, Daisy, Twist, and Brian decide to crash Amber's more successful party.
3. Art - After accepting some cheap speed from some violently friendly Scottish blokes, Tim has spent all night fighting zombies (or, more accurately, hallucinating while playing Resident Evil 2) and Mike has somehow managed to get to Sheffield on the Tube. Daisy has a job interview at a classy woman's magazine and Brian has an invitation to a new art show by Vulva, his former partner and non-gender-specific-ex-chaste-heterosexual-lover. This causes much angst and feelings of inferiority all around. "Girl Power!" fails to impress the magazine editors, Brian's much-practiced air of indifference fails to impress Vulva, and Tim's Twiglets allergy and hallucinations of zombies leads to Vulva getting a much-deserved punch in the face. (Guest starring David Walliams as Vulva and Paul Kaye as Hoover. The zombie prologue and themes of this episode were a key inspiration for Shaun of the Dead.). The episode concludes with Daisy's idea for performance art, a parody of "Bruce Nauman"'s work "Clown Torture", which leads Tim to remark that it's obviously harder than it looks.
4. Battles - After getting dumped by her boyfriend Richard, Daisy decides to cheer herself up by getting a dog. Having suffered a fear of dogs since childhood, Tim is not pleased by this. As Daisy bonds with an interesting little dog she calls Colin (named after the pet box she had as a child), Tim and Mike go paintballing, and encounter Tim's arch-nemesis, Duane Benzie, the man who stole Tim's girlfriend. By the end of the episode, Mike will have made the (sort-of) ultimate sacrifice, Tim will have had his revenge, and Brian will have imparted the tragic, yet artistically interesting, tale of his own dog's horrible death. (Guest starring Peter Serafinowicz as Duane Benzie.)
5. Chaos - Daisy is strongly bonding with new dog Colin, much to Tim's displeasure. Forced to take Colin out on a walk in an effort to bond with him, Tim is rather alarmed when Colin disappears after Tim challenges aliens to abduct him. When Daisy won't speak to him, and when he receives an anonymous tip-off revealing Colin's location - in the hands of a ruthless, sinister cosmetics testing scientist - he plans a daring rescue attempt in order to redeem himself. Will they succeed? Will a psychotic Marxist dog reveal itself? And more importantly - will Tim let Mike's callsign be Han Solo? (Guest starring Bill Bailey as Bilbo Bagshot. Featuring a cameo from Keith Allen as Tim's Shining-influenced evil stepfather.)
6. Epiphanies - Tim's bicycle courier friend Tyres pops round for a cup of tea and decides to takes the gang clubbing, forcing Brian to relive a terrible event in his past (where a spilled drink during Dexys Midnight Runners' "Come On Eileen" had disastrous results). Mike, thrown out of the Rough Ramblers following a disastrous eskimo roll (which was more a case of 'rolling right Inuit'), rediscovers his manhood with the help of some Ecstasy and a remix of the A-Team theme. And Tim and Daisy have their eyes opened.
7. Ends - Tim is ecstatic when his ex-girlfriend Sarah decides she wants him back; Daisy is less so, causing much tension around the flat. Mike has an interview at the Territorial Army to determine whether he should be allowed back in following the 'Eurodisney' incident. Following a heated argument, Daisy finally manages to bash out a few articles, and Tim finally realises the right path for him. And Brian summons the courage to ask Twist out on a date which, against all expectations, actually goes quite well.

Series 2

1. Back - After receiving an injection of money following the sale of her articles, Daisy returns from her holiday in Asia, but finds it hard to settle back into the mundanity of her normal life after her adventure. Tim has been struggling with his issues with George Lucas and The Phantom Menace (which saw him ceremonially burn his Star Wars merchandise), and after being chucked out of home for shooting his cat up the rear end, Mike has been sleeping in Daisy's room, transforming its decor into a tribute to Apocalypse Now. Things are not normal, and sinister black-suited Agents following Daisy make things even more surreal. (Guest starring John Simm as Stephen Edwards, and Kevin Eldon and Mark Gatiss as the Agents. Simm has no dialogue at all during this episode.)
2. Change - Following a dispute with a young customer over Jar Jar Binks merchandise and Tim's inability to cope with the Star Wars prequels, Bilbo fires Tim. Daisy is trying to get money out of the Job Centre people, despite not having signed on to the dole for three months due to her holiday. Brian is horrified to discover that his relationship with Twist is affecting his artistic output. After Amber runs out, Marsha finds herself a new lodger - Mike. (Guest starring Bill Bailey as Bilbo Bagshot.)
3. Mettle - Tim and Mike are through to the quarter finals of Robot Wars, but a conflict with Dexter, a rival at Mike's local TA, may jeopardise their chances. Daisy lands a job in the kitchen of a restaurant, and immediately comes into conflict with the quietly evil manageress. Daisy's entire experience in the kitchen mirrors McMurphy's experiences in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. Meanwhile, Brian struggles to prepare an artistic installation at a trendy gallery. In order to triumph against their foes, Tim and Mike must enter the dark underworld of Robot Wars by competing in a local group called "Robot Club", spoofing Fight Club. (Guest-starring Reece Shearsmith as Dexter. Cameos by members of The Bluetones as Robot Wars geeks as Dexter. Tim Sampson, who plays the Native American kitchen worker in reference to One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, is the son of Will Sampson, from the film version and was portraying the same role as his father in a stage version nearby when this episode was shot.)
4. Help - Dark Star Comics supremo Damien Knox agrees to see Tim's portfolio. Daisy unwittingly puts an unflattering portrait of him Tim drew after Knox's previous rejection (bearing the legend "I'm a massive wanker!") back into Tim's portfolio after finding it on the couch where Tim discarded it. Both Tim and Mike must enlist Tyres in a daring attempt to recover the item before it is uncovered, but discover that they have an unexpected ally in Knox's beautiful assistant, Sophie. Marsha, meanwhile, invites Daisy out to join her with her exercises, which quickly leads to a vicious, no-holds-barred fight, and Brian takes his mother to lunch dressed as a lawyer which leads to a confession about what he really does for a living.
5. Gone - After Sophie calls to cancel a date (leading Tim to instantly decide she's sleeping with her boss), Tim and Daisy spend a night out in Camden but find themselves in trouble with local youths and Tim's nemesis Duane. Meanwhile, Mike loses Colin. Only the similarities of the male psyche can save them now.
6. Dissolution - Tim and Sophie's relationship is gradually getting closer, something which is noticed by Daisy, Mike and Marsha. Daisy and Mike are both hurt and jealous by this, and Marsha (who still believes them to be a couple) is horrified for Daisy. Brian and Twist have broken up; Brian is devastated, Twist less so. Events finally come to a head at Daisy's birthday party, with a drunken confession and a painful betrayal. (Featuring a cameo from Ricky Gervais as a sleazy local newspaper advertising salesman.)
7. Leaves - The group is now scattered; Twist is in Manchester, Sophie's going to America, and Marsha is selling the house and moving on, and only something 'bloody spectacular' will change her mind. Daisy, hurt by recent events, accepts a job at a small newspaper in Colwyn Bay and prepares to leave London. But just when all looks lost, Mike comes up with a bloody spectacular idea. (Guest-starring Reece Shearsmith as Dexter.)

According to Simon Pegg, the series Northern Exposure and its frequent use of fantasy sequences was "one of the key influences" in the creation of the show. In fact, he and Jessica Stevenson pitched the show to LWT as "a cross between The Simpsons, The X-Files and Northern Exposure."

References to popular culture — particularly but not exclusively to science fiction and horror films, comic books and video games — abound in Spaced to the extent that the DVD of Series 2 includes the "Homage-o-meter", an alternative set of subtitles listing every reference and homage; for the "Definitive Collectors Edition" DVD boxed set, the Homage-o-meter was added to the first series as well. Providing the artwork for Tim's comic 'The Bear', drawings and doodles were 2000 AD artists Jim Murray and Jason Brashill, who also provided other incidental artwork for the show.

Spaced has a distinctive cinematic style set by director Edgar Wright and shot (unusually for a sitcom) with a single camera. In addition to borrowing liberally from the visual language of film (in particular genre films), it has particular stylistic mannerisms like the recurring device of scene changes occurring in the middle of a pan. The series' atmosphere is also established by the use of a particular flavour of contemporary electronica on its soundtrack.

The series is also noted for its regular references to recreational drug use, from its title onwards: Tim and Daisy are shown smoking cannabis on a number of occasions, the plot of "Art" is built around the after-effects of a night taking "cheap speed", and "Epiphanies", while not showing any explicit drug-taking, is full of references to the effects of ecstasy. The drug-taking goes unremarked, as a normal part of the characters' lives.

In 2001 a soundtrack of the first series was released in tandem with the first series on DVD and VHS. A second soundtrack was not released. A remix of "Smash It" by Fuzz Townshend was featured heavily in series two.

Spaced Out features the full details of the music used in series two at this link

The Guy Pratt remix of the A-Team theme music was never made commercially available.

Track listing

1. "Warm Up Music" (0:08)
2. "Theme Of Luxury" - Fantastic Plastic Machine (1:05)
3. "Count Five Or Six" - Cornelius (3:03)
4. "Beat Goes On" - All Seeing I (4:00)
5. "We're A Couple" (0:04)
6. "Gritty Shaker" - David Holmes (6:10)
7. "Smash It" - Fuzz Townshend (4:17)
8. "There Must Be An Angel" - Fantastic Plastic Machine (3:58)
9. "It's Over" (0:05)
10. "Homespin Rerun (Kid Loco Space Raid Remix) - High Llamas (7:47)
11. "We're Gonna Get Our Dog Back" (0:05)
12. "Absurd (Whitewash Edit)" - Fluke (3:39)
13. "More Beats And Pieces" - Coldcut (4:03)
14. "Morse" - Nightmares On Wax (6:20)
15. "If We Have It They Will Come" (0:04)
16. "Bobby Dazzler" - Sons Of Silence (4:53)
17. "Delta Sun Bottleneck Stomp (Chemical Brothers Remix)" - Mercury Rev (6:22)
18. "Disco Fudge" (0:13)
19. "Synth And Strings" - Yomanda (3:18)
20. "Test Card" - Fuzz Townshend (3:30)
21. "This Party Is Rubbish" (0:04)
22. "King Of Rock And Roll" - Prefab Sprout (4:23)
23. "S'Il Vous Plait - Fantastic Plastic Machine (5:39)
24. "Fake Sex Noises" (0:08)

A third and final series has been eagerly requested from fans and considered for some time by the cast and crew (with Simon Pegg joking that it would end with a Blake's 7 style shoot-out) but a rumoured movie is not on the cards. Edgar Wright told the official fan website spaced-out that he is "torn" about making more Spaced and that "we have genuinely talked about it and have some neat ideas that could work in a Before Sunset / Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads? kind of way".

Many see the movie Shaun of the Dead, written by Simon Pegg and Edgar Wright and directed by / starring Wright and Pegg respectively (Jessica Stevenson made a small appearence), as essentially a spin-off of the series, featuring many of the same actors and set out in much the same way, and both men have acknowledged that the zombie sequences in the episode 'Art' were a key inspiration. Wright, however, points out the differences: Shaun has fewer pop-culture and movie references, and tries to avoid the clichés of recent horror parodies in favour of a more naturalistic style as its story progresses.

The success of Shaun of the Dead was unexpected, both in the UK and the US, and they proceeded to produce a second movie entitled Hot Fuzz, scheduled for UK release on 16 February 2007. In a 2006 Radio 4 interview, however, Simon Pegg stated that he’d like to bring back Spaced for a one-hour special to "tie up all the loose ends [3]". However, there have been no formal or significant commitments to a third series of Spaced, and no indication of a new series or special being commissioned.

Spaced premiered in the U.S. on Bravo in 2002. Only four episodes were aired. In 2004, the now-defunct Trio began airing the show regularly. BBC America began airing the series on June 23rd, 2006.

Whilst there is little indication that a third series will be produced in the near future, the recent Spaced: Definitive Collector's Edition DVD box set contained a documentary, 'Skip to the End', examining the making of the show and its cultural influence. Whilst primarily factual and based around interviews with the cast, crew and outside commentators, this documentary is notable in that it features an in-character 'epilogue' of sorts to the series in which Daisy and Tim briefly appear in the doorway of the flat, holding a baby - a brief conversation establishing that the baby is theirs and that they are now in a relationship.Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.
Virtual Magic is a human knowledge database blog. Text Based On Information From Wikipedia, Under The GNU Free Documentation License. Copyright (c) 2007 Virtual Magic. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

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