Billings, Montana

Billings is the largest city in the U.S. state of Montana, located in the south-central portion of the state. Billings is rapidly growing; as of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 89,847 and a 2006 city estimate indicates the city's population has grown to 101,182. Billings is the county seat of Yellowstone CountyGR6 and is the principal city of the Billings Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of both Carbon and Yellowstone counties and Billings. In terms of population, it is the largest metropolitan area in Montana. It is nicknamed the Magic City because of its rapid growth from its founding as a railroad town in 1882. It was said that Billings "grew like magic." Billings is named for Frederick H. Billings, president of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Due to Billings' status as the largest city in a 500 mile radius (south-central and eastern Montana and northern Wyoming), it serves as a shopping and accommodation center for area residents and highway travelers. The city's proximity to Yellowstone National Park, Pompey's Pillar, and the area where the Battle of the Little Bighorn was fought also draws a large number of tourists, especially during the summer months. Such traffic in recent years is largely due to Billings being on the most significant highway in Montana, Interstate 90.

Most of Billings is located in the Yellowstone Valley, carved out by the Yellowstone River. Over 10 million years ago, this valley was underwater with the tops of the Rims being a prehistoric beach. It is not unusual to find fossilized fish in the area.

Some of pictographs in the Pictograph Cave 6 miles south of Billings are 2,100 years old. The Crow Indians frequented this area from about the year 1700.

In 1806, William Clark traveled through the region on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He inscribed his name on Pompey's Pillar, a rock formation 25 miles northeast of Billings, on July 25, 1806. Clark wrote that he climbed the sandstone pillar and "had a most extensive view in every direction on the Northerly Side of the river". Clark named the place "Pompys Tower" in honor of a young Shoshone boy he had nicknamed "Pompy." The boy's mother was Sacagawea, who had helped guide the Lewis and Clark expedition and had acted as an interpreter. The name of the formation was changed by 1814) to the current title. Clark's inscription is the only remaining physical evidence found along the route that was followed by the expedition.

Billings was founded in 1877 and established in 1882 in the Montana Territory near the already-existing town of Coulson. Coulson had been situated on the Yellowstone River, which made it ideal for the commerce that Steamboats brought up the river. However, when the Montana & Minnesota Land Company oversaw the development of potential railroad land, they ignored Coulson, and platted the new town of Billings several miles to the West. When the Northern Pacific Railroad was built, Coulson died as Billings flourished. The land that was once the town of Coulson is now Coulson Park. Northern Pacific Railroad President Frederick Billings, along with other executives of the railroad, bought land in the Yellowstone Valley, then later sold it back to his own railroad. This practice was both legal and common at the time. A structure known as "The Castle" was erected emulating European design with its crow-step gable construction.

Billings suffered from a major flood in 1937. After World War II, Billings boomed into a major financial, medical and cultural center in the region. In the 1960s, Billings surpassed Great Falls as Montana's largest city. In the 1970s, Billings suffered a short decline in population due to the oil crisis. The population quickly rebounded in the early 1980s and has never declined since. Billings was affected by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in May; the city received about an inch of ash on the ground. Billings received the All-America City Award in 1992.

In 1993, Billings made national news with the "Not in Our Town" phenomenon. Hate activists and Neo-Nazis were starting to congregate in town with KKK flyers being distributed, the Jewish cemetery being vandalized, the home of a Native American family being painted with swastikas, and a brick being thrown through a window of a child who was displaying a Menorah for Hanukkah. The city of Billings acted against the growing environment of hate by standing strong. Religious groups sponsored marches and candlelight vigils. The Billings Gazette printed out paper Menorahs. Over 10,000 homes and businesses hung them in their windows, even at the risk of bricks being thrown through them. The residents of Billings eventually drove out the hate activists peacefully using these methods, earning the nickname "The Paradigm City".

Today Billings continues to be the financial, medical, agricultural, and cultural center for the Northern Great Plains and continues to be the "Star of the Big Sky Country." In 2002 Skypoint was completed. A twelve-story mixed-use buildings are proposed for downtown Billings. In 2005, the people of Billings elected former Police Chief Ron Tussing as Mayor. He was sworn in January 9, 2006.

Billings has experienced continued growth in the recent years, never declining in population like most of the rest of the eastern portion of the state, as well as most of the Great Plains states. It has avoided this trend by being in close proximity to the mountainous regions of Wyoming and Montana, making it a tourist hotspot.

This growth can be seen all over the city, with a new Wal-Mart and Target popping up in the Heights (making them the second of both in the city, the others are on the West End). New housing subdivisions are crowding a once sparse highway to the nearby town of Laurel and the medical corridor never seems to stop expanding. The population of the city is constantly on the march toward the 100,000 mark.

More widely famous people who have lived in Billings include Charles Lindbergh, who once worked as a mechanic at the Billings Logan Airport and performed as a "barnstormer." Birthplace of Cody Feller. "Calamity Jane" Canary also lived in the Billings area toward the end of her life. Arlo Guthrie was briefly a student at Rocky Mountain College. A handful of retired Baseball players were born or lived in Billings including Dave McNally and Jeff Ballard, both who pitched for the Baltimore Orioles, as well as New York Mets pitcher Les Rohr, San Diego Padres pitcher Joe McIntosh and Atlanta Braves pitcher Gary Neibauer. Former NBA players Brad Holland (now Head Coach of the University of San Diego) and Jim Creighton and ABA player Roy McPipe. Also, former NFL player Kirk Scrafford and former NHL player Greg Smith lived in Billings. Current Baltimore Ravens player Dwan Edwards was born in Billings. LPGA golfer Leslie Spalding has lived in Billings her entire life. Sportscaster Brent Musburger lived in Billings for several years when he was a youth, as well as ESPN anchor Matt Winer, who did sports for the local news in the early 90's. Deniz Tek of the influential Australian punk band Radio Birdman worked in Billings as a doctor. David Byers grew up in Billings. Movie director John Dahl was born in Billings, as was General Hospital actor Wally Kurth. Famous western artist Will James has a middle-school named after him in Billings, near his original home.

Miss Teen USA 2006 Katie Blair is from Billings, Montana. Former United States Senator Conrad Burns, served from 1988 to 2007 Denny Rehberg, Congressman (At-Large), Lt. Governor.

Billings is located at 45°47′12″N, 108°32′14″W (45.786553, -108.537139)GR1, with two thirds of the city in the Yellowstone Valley, the city being divided into the Valley and the Heights by the Rims, a long cliff, also called the Rimrocks. Billings is surrounded by six mountain ranges, the Beartooth Mountains to the southwest, the Pryor Mountains and Bighorn Mountains to the south, the Crazy Mountains to the west, the Bull Mountains to the north and the Wolf Mountains to the south east.

The Yellowstone River runs through the City. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 106.0 km² (41.0 mi²). 104.7 km² (40.9 mi²) of it is land and 0.3 km² (0.1 mi²) of it (0.33%) is water.

The climate of Billings is known for being dry and Semi-arid. The humidity remains low all year-round and is usually sunny and mild. However, in the summers the temperature can get over 100 degrees Fahrenheit and in the winter below zero Fahrenheit. The snowfall typically averages about 57 inches a year, but because of warm Chinook winds that pass through the region between February and March, the snow doesn't usually accumulate. First frosts generally come early and last frosts late. Autumn in Billings is usually mild. Winds can also get pretty high because Billings is located in the flatlands of Montana.

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 89,847 people, 37,525 households, and 23,152 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,029.1/km² (2,665.1/mi²). There were 39,293 housing units at an average density of 450.0/km² (1,165.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 91.87% White, 0.55% African American, 3.44% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.45% from other races, and 2.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.18% of the population.

There were 37,525 households out of which 29.2% had children under the living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.3% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.0% under the , 10.1% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,147, and the median income for a family was $45,032. Males had a median income of $32,525 versus $21,824 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,207. About 9.2% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.

The suburbs surrounding Billings include Lockwood, Montana, Shepherd, Montana, and Huntley, Montana. Some of the neighborhoods inside the city itself are Airport, Alkali Creek, Briarwood, Downtown Business District, Entryway, Gregory Hills, Heights, Lockwood, Medical Corridor, West End - Descro Park, Wilshire Heights, South Hills, South Side, Yellowstone Country Club, and Ironwood.

Nearby communities:

* To Butte, Montana: 226 miles (west) | 3 hours/8 minutes
* To Boise, Idaho: 621 miles (south west) | 9 hours/34 minutes
* To Bozeman, Montana: 143 miles (west) | 2 hours/2 minuts
* To Calgary, Alberta: 542 miles (north west) | 9 hours/33 minutes
* To Cheyenne, Wyoming: 458 miles (south) | 6 hours/19 minutes
* To Crow Agency, Montana: 60 miles (south) | 45 minutes
* To Denver, Colorado: 552 miles (south) | 7 hours/40 minutes
* To Garryowen, Montana: 62 miles (south east) | 1 hour
* To Great Falls, Montana: 219 miles (north west) | 4 hours/54 minutes
* To Hardin, Montana: 48 miles (east) | 45 minutes
* To Helena, Montana: 239 miles (north west) | 3 hours/52 minutes
* To Huntley, Montana: 17 miles (East) | 15 minutes
* To Laurel, Montana: 15 miles (west) | 20 minutes
* To Little Bighorn Battlefield: 60 miles (south east) | 45 Minutes
* To Minneapolis, Minnesota: 843 miles (east) | 12 hours/35 minutes
* To Missoula, Montana: 339 miles (via Helena, north west) | 4 hours/43 minutes
* To Red Lodge, Montana: 61 miles (south west) | 1 hour/13 minutes
* To Roundup, Montana: 48 miles (north) | 45 minutes
* To Salt Lake City, Utah: 554 miles (south west) | 8 hours/45 minutes
* To Sheridan, Wyoming: 132 miles (south east) | 1 hour/51 minutes
* To Seattle, Washington: 818 miles (north west) 11 hours/57 minutes
* To Spokane, Washington: 540 miles (north west) | 7 hours/33 minutes
* To Vancouver, British Columbia: 952 miles (north west) | 14 hours/36 minutes
* To Yellowstone National Park: 126 Miles (south west) | 4 hours/15 minutes

The Billings, Montana City Code or BMCC, was adopted in 1977. The mayor of Billings is Ron (Ronald) Tussing. Billings is divided into 5 city Council Wards. Ward I is represented by Peggie Gaghen and Jim Ronquillo. Ward II is represented by Joy Stevens and Larry Brewster. Ward III is represented by Vince Ruegamer and Chris "Shoots" Veis. Ward IV is represented by Nancy Boyer and Ed Ulledalen. Ward V is represented by Donald W. Jones and Richard (Dick) Clark.

The Billings Police Department is the main law enforcement agency in Billings. It is the largest city police force in Montana, with about 132 sworn officers and 80 civilian employees covering 41 square miles and a population of about 100,000. There are two policing districts, the Western District and the Eastern District. Each has a captain in charge, twelve sergants, and approximately 60 officers.

The Billings Fire Department provides emergency services including fire suppression, emergency medical response, hazardous materials response, high angle rescue, confined space rescue, vehicle accident extrication, fire investigations, fire inspections, and fire education. The department has 97 employees, including four battalion chiefs, 27 captains, 27 engineers, and 39 firefighters.

Geographically, Billings has one of the largest trade areas in the United States, serving more than 350,000 people. Some of the services in Billings include agriculture, medical services, oil refining, and tourism. Agricultural items produced in and around Billings are sugar beets, corn, wheat, and cattle. Companies located in Billings include KOA, First Interstate Bank, DA Davidson and Co., Big Sky Airlines, Hennessy's (defunct), and CTA Architects Engineers. Call centers for Global Crossing (currently in bankruptcy) and Wells Fargo Bank are also in Billings. Eide Bailly has a branch in Billings, and this office is the largest accounting firm in Montana. Free Rental Finder serves the rental housing market with Professional Management, Rainbow Property Management, Metro Property Management, and HDA Management.

Interstate 90 runs east/west through Billings. Interstate 94 begins a few miles east of the city limits. U.S. Highway 87 is the north/south highway that begins on the edge on the Heights and is northeast of Downtown Billings. Note: US 87 North does not go through Billings, It turns into Main Street in the Heights before connecting to U.S. Highway 87 East. Major Roads going east and west in Billings include Broadwater Avenue, Central Avenue, Grand Avenue, King Avenue West, and Poly Drive. Major Roads going North and South in Billings include 24th Street West, Division Road, Shiloh Road, Main Street, and North 27th Street. The Billings METropolitan Transit, the MET, provides public transportation. Greyhound has an eastern terminus at Billings; Rimrock Trailways also provides regional and interstate bus service.The nearest Amtrak stop is on the Hi-Line, 200 miles north of Billings. Billings Logan International Airport, located northwest of downtown Billings, offers non-stop service to a number of cities in the western United States and within Montana.

The Billings Metro Area has two Level II trauma hospitals, St. Vincent Healthcare and the Billings Clinic. Other medical facilities include the Northern Rockies Cancer Center, Rimrock Foundation and various mental health services from Billings Clinic.

Billings Public Schools operates 21 elementary schools, four middle schools, and three public high schools

Bitteroot, Bench, Alkali Creek, Independent, Broadwater, ect.

Castle Rock Middle School, Lewis and Clark Middle school, Will James Middle school, and Riverside Jr. High

Skyview High School, Senior High School,and West High School

The Billings Catholic Schools operates Billings Central Catholic High School (grades 9-12), St. Francis Upper (grades 6-8), St Francis Intermediate (grades 3-5), St Francis Primary, (K-2) and St Francis Daycare.

Trinity Lutheran Church operates Trinity Lutheran School (grades k-8).

Billings Christian School serving grades K-12.

Adelphi Christian Academy serving grades 7-12. Adelphi Christian Academy

Billings Educational Academy (B.e A. K-12

There are several Higher Level Learning facilities in Billings. These Include states schools (Montana State University - Billings and The College of Technology) and private schools (Rocky Mountain College and Yellowstone Baptist College).

Montana State University - Billings was originally named Eastern Montana Normal School when it was founded and then named Eastern Montana College before being renamed to its present name when the Montana State University System reorganized in 1994. The university was established in 1927 and offers Associate/Bachelor/Master degrees and certificates in various education fields. MSU-Billings is known as having a strong Education and Rehabilitation majors. Today, there are hundreds of degrees to choose from. Currently around 4,600 students attend MSU-Billings.

The College of Technology (West campus) was originally another associate-level community college. This college recently merged with the main campus. In the past few years, enrollment has risen to over 1,000 full time students (accounting for nearly 1/5 of the student body). Projections with grant improvements and workforce needs foresee a 2,000 student increase in the near future.

Billings also offers two private schools. Rocky Mountain College is Montana's oldest and first institution of higher learning, founded in 1878. It is a private comprehensive college offering over 40 liberal arts and professionally oriented majors. Rocky Mountain College is often simply called "Rocky" or "RMC" for short. Rocky is proud of its standing record of being ranked by U.S. News & World Report as one of the top 10 in quality and a “best value” among comprehensive colleges in the West. Along with its quality Rocky also continues to maintain a 99% graduate placement rate. Yellowstone Baptist College also offers a limited curriculum.

There are a number of activities in and around Billings. From hiking, rock climbing, mountain climbing, fishing, art walks, Alive after 5, food fairs and rodeos. Some annual events include:

* Wine & Food Festival at MSU-Billings - MAY
* Strawberry Festival under Skypoint - JUN
* SummerFair at North Park - JUL
* Battle of the Little Big Horn Re-enactment near Crow Agency, Montana - JUN
* Farmers Market under Skypoint - Every Saturday JUN to OCT
* Big Sky State Games - JUL
* Skyfest (Hot air balloons) - JUL/AUG.
* MontanaFair at the MetraPark Arena fairgrounds - AUG
* Magic City Blues Festival - AUG in Downtown Billings
* Crow Fair & Rodeo in Crow Agency, Montana - AUG
* Burn the Point (classic car show) - SEP in Downtown Billings
* Harvest Fest - OCT
* Christmas Parade in Downtown Billings - NOV 24
* Festival of Trees - DEC
* The Christmas Stroll in Downtown Billings - DEC.

The Billings Metropolitan Area is served by two major news television stations, four major non-news television stations, one community television station, twenty-two commercial radio stations and one major daily newspaper. The Billings Gazette is a daily morning broadsheet newspaper printed in Billings, Montana and owned by Lee Enterprises. It is the largest daily newspaper in Montana, with a Sunday circulation of 52,434 and a weekday circulation of 47,105. The paper publishes in three editions: the state edition, which circulates in most of Eastern Montana and all of South Central Montana; the Wyoming edition, which circulates in Northern Wyoming; and the city edition, which circulates in Yellowstone County.

Attractions located within Billings include the Yellowstone Art Museum, Moss Mansion Historic House Museum, the Western Heritage Center, the Billings Depot, and Skypoint.

The Moss Mansion Historic House Museum is located in Billings on 914 Division St. It is a turn of the century, red-stoned mansion built by P.B. Moss, who moved to Billings from Paris, Missouri. It was inhabited souly by Mr. and Mrs. Moss, their six children, and 3 servants until 1984. The house was built for a cost of $105,000, when most homes averaged about $3000. It has 28 rooms, and takes up an area of 60 square feet. It rises 45 feet into the air.

The Mansion is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Visitors can still see the original furniture, draperies, carpets and fixtures during a one-hour guided tour. Seasonal exhibits are also featured. The Moss Mansion was designed by the famous New York Architect Henry Hardenbergh, who also designed the original Waldorf-Astoria, Plaza Hotels, Williard Hotel, and Copely Hotel. The Moss Mansion is operated by the Billings Preservation Society, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Downtown attractions of Billings include The Western Heritage Center and the Billings Depot. The Western Heritage Center is a regional museum located in the Historic District in the downtown. This museum used to be the old Parmly Billings Library. Built in 1913, the library turned museum houses a collection of artifacts and history of the Yellowstone River Valley. The Western Heritage Center is affiliated with the Smithsonian Institute. The Billings Depot is a historic train depot. The depot used to be the passenger terminal for the Northern Pacific Railroad, Great Northern and Chicago, Burlingtion and Quincy. The last regular Amtrak train departed in the spring of 1979. Today, the depot is being renovated to host event such as wedding receptions, small concerts, and art shows.

Skypoint is a tent-like structure over the intersection 2nd Avenue and Broadway and is also located in downtown Billings. Its highest point is 73 feet tall. There are three "sails" that make up the structure. The largest sail can move to let the sun through or to cover the intersection if it rains. This is part of the plan to revitalize downtown Billings and attract more people to downtown. Skypoint was completed in 2002 and was originally named the "Defining Element" until it got its current name in a naming contest. It was built as a new icon for the city of Billings and to hold events such as the Strawberry Festival, the Christmas Stroll, and other events. Image:downtown2.jpg

ZooMontana is a 70 acre wildlife park located in Billings USA and is Montana's only zoo and botanical park. The zoo was first planned in the early 1980s. It is home to both native and non-native animals from around the world. The zoo gets about 70,000 visitors annually and is one of the regions most popular tourist attractions.

ZooMontana is an Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) accredited wildlife park & zoo. The zoo hosts animals not only native to the Rockies but also species from Asia and Europe. Among the animals featured is a Siberian Tiger, Eastern Gray Wolves, North American River Otters, Bighorn Sheep, Red Pandas, Great Horned Owls, Bald Eagles, Sika Deer, Wyoming Toads, Wolverines, Waterfowls, and Lesser Spot-Nosed Guenon. The animals live in state-of-the-art enclosures designed to imitate their natural habitats.

Attractions located near Billings include Yellowstone National Park, the Western Romance Company, the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, The Pictograph Cave National Historic Landmark, Pompey's Pillar National Monument (where Clark signed his name), and Chief Plenty Coup State Park.

The Western Romance Company is located 15 miles east of Billings in Huntley, Montana. The Company offers authentic cowboy entertainment such as a tour bus holdup and surprise by cowboy bus bandits, a covered wagon train ride across Montana prairie to Happy Pappy's Chuckwagon Camp where the movies Lonesome Dove and Far and Away were filmed, catered cowboy meals, western music artists and entertainment, cowboy concerts on the range, Pompey's Pillars trips and more.

The site of the Battle of the Little Bighorn is also located only 65 southeast of Billings. Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument preserves the site of the June 26, 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn, near Crow Agency, Montana, in the United States. It also serves as a memorial to those who fought in the battle: George Armstrong Custer's 7th Cavalry and a combined Lakota-Northern Cheyenne force. Custer National Cemetery, on the battlefield, is part of the national monument. The site of a related military action led by Marcus Reno and Frederick Benteen is also part of the national monument, but is about 3 miles (5 km) southeast of the Little Bighorn battlefield.

The Pictograph Cave National Historic Landmark is a 93 acre area of three caves (Pictograph, Middle, and Ghost caves) located 6 miles south of Billings. There are over 30,000 artifacts which have been identified. Paintings known as pictographs are still visible in Pictograph Cave, which is the largest of the three caves. Some of the pictographs 00 years old. They are paintings of animals, warriors, and even rifles that document the story of the Native Americans of the area for thousands of years.

The Chief Plenty Coups Memorial is a state park located near Pryor, Montana on the Crow Indian Reservation in Montana. The home belonged to Chief Plenty Coups, the last Chief of the Crow Nation. He and his wife left his home to all Americans as a museum in 1928. It is a two-story log cabin that represents Chief Plenty Coups' effort for his people to adopt a new lifestyle. It holds his personal belongings as well as cultural displays of Crow Indian heritage. The cabin also has a good view of the Pryor Mountains.

MetraPark Arena is an 8,000 to 12,000 seat multi-purpose arena in Billings. MetraPark Arena was completed in 1975 but through a lot of controversy. It is owned by the City of Billings, and Yellowstone County. In 2005, MetraPark arena marked its 30th anniversary.

The Metrapark has hosted Pre-Season NBA games on a semi-regular basis. The most recent game was October 20, 2005 in which the Indiana Pacers defeated the Minnesota Timberwolves 93-76.

In the Summer of 2005, the Metrapark hosted tryouts for a new minor basketball league called the AAPBL (All American Professional Basketball League). The tryouts took place from July 11 2005 - July 22 2005. However, the league folded soon thereafter.

The MetraPark has also played host to various WWE and WCW wrestling events including a live televised WCW Monday Nitro tv show in 2000.

Cobb Field is the baseball stadium located in Billings, originally named Athletic Park. It has been the home of the Billings Mustangs, the Pioneer League Rookie Affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds, since 1948. Cobb Field was named after Bob Cobb, who was responsible for bringing professional baseball with the Mustangs to the little city of Billings. Cobb Field also hosts home games for local American Legion baseball teams.

Cobb Field seats 4,200, though crowds have been known to eclipse 5,000, particularly on promotional free ticket nights such as "Kwik Way Night," in which local Billings, Kwik Way gas stations give out tickets to customers.

Wendy's Field at Daylis Stadium is a local area stadium used for high school games. It is located adjacent to Billings Senior High.

* Billings is known as The Yellowstone City because of city being a gateway to Yellowstone National Park, being the Seat of Yellowstone County and being by the Yellowstone River.Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.
Virtual Magic is a human knowledge database blog. Text Based On Information From Wikipedia, Under The GNU Free Documentation License. Copyright (c) 2007 Virtual Magic. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

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